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Baumbach, Sebastian (2014): Entwicklung und Validierung eines Neuen Biomechanischen Frakturmodells der Extraatrikulären Distalen Radiusfraktur Loco Typico (AO 23-A3). Dissertation, LMU München: Medizinische Fakultät
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Abstract

No consensus currently exists on the facture location of dorsally displaced distal radius fractures (DRFs). We present a systematic evaluation of the distal fracture line (DFL) location of DRFs and possible influencing factors. Determining the average location of DRFs provides a basis for developing more sensitive tests to determine bone strength using a variety of imaging techniques and for developing improved biomechanical models to test fracture characteristics and surgical implants. Initial radiographs of 157 DRFs dorsally displaced DRFs in patients aged 40-74 years were identified, patient and trauma specific data were collected, and standard radiographic measurements and (AO) fracture classification were performed. The dorsal and palmar DFL locations relative to the corresponding apex of the lunate facet were measured. The DFL was located dorsally 7.9 ± 2.7 mm and palmarly 11.7 ± 3.9 mm proximal to the corresponding lunate fossa apex. The dorsal DFL was significantly distal to the palmar one (p < 0.001), but the two did not correlate (r(2) = 0.018, p = 0.095). DFL location was independent of age, energy of the fall, and fracture complexity.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Distal radius fractures (DRF) are one of the most common fractures and often need surgical treatment, which has been validated through biomechanical tests. Currently a number of different fracture models are used, none of which resemble the in vivo fracture location. The aim of the study was to develop a new standardized fracture model for DRF (AO-23.A3) and compare its biomechanical behavior to the current gold standard. METHODS: Variable angle locking volar plates (ADAPTIVE, Medartis) were mounted on 10 pairs of fresh-frozen radii. The osteotomy location was alternated within each pair (New: 10 mm wedge 8 mm / 12 mm proximal to the dorsal / volar apex of the articular surface; Gold standard: 10 mm wedge 20 mm proximal to the articular surface). Each specimen was tested in cyclic axial compression (increasing load by 100 N per cycle) until failure or -3 mm displacement. Parameters assessed were stiffness, displacement and dissipated work calculated for each cycle and ultimate load. Significance was tested using a linear mixed model and Wald test as well as t-tests. RESULTS: 7 female and 3 male pairs of radii aged 74 +/- 9 years were tested. In most cases (7/10), the two groups showed similar mechanical behavior at low loads with increasing differences at increasing loads. Overall the novel fracture model showed a significant different biomechanical behavior than the gold standard model (p < 0,001). The average final loads resisted were significantly lower in the novel model (860 N +/- 232 N vs. 1250 N +/- 341 N; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The novel biomechanical fracture model for DRF more closely mimics the in vivo fracture site and shows a significantly different biomechanical behavior with increasing loads when compared to the current gold standard.