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Application of advanced fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy in live-cell imaging
Application of advanced fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy in live-cell imaging
Since its inception, fluorescence microscopy has been a key source of discoveries in cell biology. Advancements in fluorophores, labeling techniques and instrumentation have made fluorescence microscopy a versatile quantitative tool for studying dynamic processes and interactions both in vitro and in live-cells. In this thesis, I apply quantitative fluorescence microscopy techniques in live-cell environments to investigate several biological processes. To study Gag processing in HIV-1 particles, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and single particle tracking are combined to follow nascent HIV-1 virus particles during assembly and release on the plasma membrane of living cells. Proteolytic release of eCFP embedded in the Gag lattice of immature HIV-1 virus particles results in a characteristic increase in its fluorescence lifetime. Gag processing and rearrangement can be detected in individual virus particles using this approach. In another project, a robust method for quantifying Förster resonance energy transfer in live-cells is developed to allow direct comparison of live-cell FRET experiments between laboratories. Finally, I apply image fluctuation spectroscopy to study protein behavior in a variety of cellular environments. Image cross-correlation spectroscopy is used to study the oligomerization of CXCR4, a G-protein coupled receptor on the plasma membrane. With raster image correlation spectroscopy, I measure the diffusion of histones in the nucleoplasm and heterochromatin domains of the nuclei of early mouse embryos. The lower diffusion coefficient of histones in the heterochromatin domain supports the conclusion that heterochromatin forms a liquid phase-separated domain. The wide range of topics covered in this thesis demonstrate that fluorescence microscopy is more than just an imaging tool but also a powerful instrument for the quantification and elucidation of dynamic cellular processes.
fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence lifetime, imaging microscopy, förster resonance, energy transfer, raster image correlation spectroscopy, hiv-1 maturation, live-cell imaging
Qian, Chen
2022
English
Universitätsbibliothek der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Qian, Chen (2022): Application of advanced fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy in live-cell imaging. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy
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Abstract

Since its inception, fluorescence microscopy has been a key source of discoveries in cell biology. Advancements in fluorophores, labeling techniques and instrumentation have made fluorescence microscopy a versatile quantitative tool for studying dynamic processes and interactions both in vitro and in live-cells. In this thesis, I apply quantitative fluorescence microscopy techniques in live-cell environments to investigate several biological processes. To study Gag processing in HIV-1 particles, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and single particle tracking are combined to follow nascent HIV-1 virus particles during assembly and release on the plasma membrane of living cells. Proteolytic release of eCFP embedded in the Gag lattice of immature HIV-1 virus particles results in a characteristic increase in its fluorescence lifetime. Gag processing and rearrangement can be detected in individual virus particles using this approach. In another project, a robust method for quantifying Förster resonance energy transfer in live-cells is developed to allow direct comparison of live-cell FRET experiments between laboratories. Finally, I apply image fluctuation spectroscopy to study protein behavior in a variety of cellular environments. Image cross-correlation spectroscopy is used to study the oligomerization of CXCR4, a G-protein coupled receptor on the plasma membrane. With raster image correlation spectroscopy, I measure the diffusion of histones in the nucleoplasm and heterochromatin domains of the nuclei of early mouse embryos. The lower diffusion coefficient of histones in the heterochromatin domain supports the conclusion that heterochromatin forms a liquid phase-separated domain. The wide range of topics covered in this thesis demonstrate that fluorescence microscopy is more than just an imaging tool but also a powerful instrument for the quantification and elucidation of dynamic cellular processes.