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Chaos in many-body quantum systems
Chaos in many-body quantum systems
Chaos in many-body quantum systems is of great importance to both many-body physics as well as black hole physics. In the field of many-body physics, interactions and disorder in the system can lead to various dynamic phenomena, be it thermalisation, many-body localisation, chaotic behavior and scrambling of quantum information. In the field of high energy physics, the holographic principle connects chaos and scrambling in many-body quantum systems with the information-theoretic properties of black holes. Theoretical quantum physics provides the framework for the models, methods, and results in this thesis, while black hole physics partly provides some motivation and inspiration. First, we introduce a new model for a many-body quantum system based on random quantum circuits. These are a popular framework for theoretic study of disordered spin chains. By drawing the random unitaries in the circuit from different ensembles, we can adjust the disorder strength in the interactions, which in turn leads to a thermal/many-body localisation phase transition. Next, we study the Brownian SYK model, a disordered model of Majorana fermions with all-to-all interactions, motivated by its link to the holographic principle. We develop a new numerical method based on an effective permutational symmetry to reduce computational cost from exponential to linear or quadratic in system size N. As a consequence, we can compute scrambling quantifiers in detail, and find a log N scrambling time, as conjectured in the context of fast scrambling for black holes. Finally, we develop a model based on the continuous-time limit of a random quantum circuit. It serves as a microscopic toy model for the evaporation of a black hole. With a similar method as developed for the Brownian SYK model, we can analyse its information theoretic properties. In particular, we follow established protocols for information retrieval from the Hawking radiation. We find a separation of time scales for entanglement growth and information retrieval, related to the intrinsic black hole dynamics (∝log N) and the coupling to the environment (∝N).
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Sünderhauf, Christoph
2021
English
Universitätsbibliothek der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Sünderhauf, Christoph (2021): Chaos in many-body quantum systems. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Physics
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Abstract

Chaos in many-body quantum systems is of great importance to both many-body physics as well as black hole physics. In the field of many-body physics, interactions and disorder in the system can lead to various dynamic phenomena, be it thermalisation, many-body localisation, chaotic behavior and scrambling of quantum information. In the field of high energy physics, the holographic principle connects chaos and scrambling in many-body quantum systems with the information-theoretic properties of black holes. Theoretical quantum physics provides the framework for the models, methods, and results in this thesis, while black hole physics partly provides some motivation and inspiration. First, we introduce a new model for a many-body quantum system based on random quantum circuits. These are a popular framework for theoretic study of disordered spin chains. By drawing the random unitaries in the circuit from different ensembles, we can adjust the disorder strength in the interactions, which in turn leads to a thermal/many-body localisation phase transition. Next, we study the Brownian SYK model, a disordered model of Majorana fermions with all-to-all interactions, motivated by its link to the holographic principle. We develop a new numerical method based on an effective permutational symmetry to reduce computational cost from exponential to linear or quadratic in system size N. As a consequence, we can compute scrambling quantifiers in detail, and find a log N scrambling time, as conjectured in the context of fast scrambling for black holes. Finally, we develop a model based on the continuous-time limit of a random quantum circuit. It serves as a microscopic toy model for the evaporation of a black hole. With a similar method as developed for the Brownian SYK model, we can analyse its information theoretic properties. In particular, we follow established protocols for information retrieval from the Hawking radiation. We find a separation of time scales for entanglement growth and information retrieval, related to the intrinsic black hole dynamics (∝log N) and the coupling to the environment (∝N).