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Dynamical modeling of the network controlling meiotic divisions
Dynamical modeling of the network controlling meiotic divisions
Mitosis and meiosis are both controlled by oscillations in the activities of cyclin- dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Nevertheless, these types of cell division differ in fundamental aspects. In mitosis, Cdk1 and APC/C-Cdc20 form a cyclical system whereby each cycle recreates the starting conditions for the next one. As a result, chromosomes duplication during S-phase alternates with chromosome segregation during M-phase. By contrast, meiosis is a linear pathway of precisely two waves of Cdk1 and APC/C-Cdc20 activity that govern the progression through one S-phase followed by two M-phases and a differentiation program dedicated to the formation of gametes or spores. Despite recent advances in our understanding of meiosis, it is unclear how the mitotic cell cycle engine is modified to regulate the two meiotic divisions. Therefore, we combined mathematical modeling with experimental studies on budding yeast to describe the general mechanism of progression through meiotic divisions with special emphasis on the regulation of the exit from meiosis II. We showed that progression through meiotic divisions is driven by a well conserved Cdk1-APC/C-Cdc20 oscillator complemented by a set of meiotic regulators in order to perform two, and only two, meiotic divisions. The machinery that terminates the oscillations after completion of meiosis II consists of a meiosis I-specific mechanism that unleashes the irreversible inactivation of M-phase regulators after the second wave of APC/C-Cdc20 activity, thereby preventing cells from undergoing an additional third division. Here, we describe the roles of the two main APC/C co- activators, Ama1 and Cdc20, in triggering the exit from meiosis and in terminating the oscillations. We show that Ama1 acts as a terminator of the meiotic oscillations, while Cdc20 is important for the proper timing of the exit from meiosis II. We propose that in the absence of Ama1, the properties of the system change, allowing Cdc20 to adopt the function of the terminator precisely after meiosis II. In addition, we evaluate an APC/C-independent mechanisms, which might be important for preventing a third meiotic division.
meiosis, APC/C, Cdk1, mathematical model, protein network
Jonak, Katarzyna
2020
English
Universitätsbibliothek der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Jonak, Katarzyna (2020): Dynamical modeling of the network controlling meiotic divisions. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Biology
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Abstract

Mitosis and meiosis are both controlled by oscillations in the activities of cyclin- dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Nevertheless, these types of cell division differ in fundamental aspects. In mitosis, Cdk1 and APC/C-Cdc20 form a cyclical system whereby each cycle recreates the starting conditions for the next one. As a result, chromosomes duplication during S-phase alternates with chromosome segregation during M-phase. By contrast, meiosis is a linear pathway of precisely two waves of Cdk1 and APC/C-Cdc20 activity that govern the progression through one S-phase followed by two M-phases and a differentiation program dedicated to the formation of gametes or spores. Despite recent advances in our understanding of meiosis, it is unclear how the mitotic cell cycle engine is modified to regulate the two meiotic divisions. Therefore, we combined mathematical modeling with experimental studies on budding yeast to describe the general mechanism of progression through meiotic divisions with special emphasis on the regulation of the exit from meiosis II. We showed that progression through meiotic divisions is driven by a well conserved Cdk1-APC/C-Cdc20 oscillator complemented by a set of meiotic regulators in order to perform two, and only two, meiotic divisions. The machinery that terminates the oscillations after completion of meiosis II consists of a meiosis I-specific mechanism that unleashes the irreversible inactivation of M-phase regulators after the second wave of APC/C-Cdc20 activity, thereby preventing cells from undergoing an additional third division. Here, we describe the roles of the two main APC/C co- activators, Ama1 and Cdc20, in triggering the exit from meiosis and in terminating the oscillations. We show that Ama1 acts as a terminator of the meiotic oscillations, while Cdc20 is important for the proper timing of the exit from meiosis II. We propose that in the absence of Ama1, the properties of the system change, allowing Cdc20 to adopt the function of the terminator precisely after meiosis II. In addition, we evaluate an APC/C-independent mechanisms, which might be important for preventing a third meiotic division.