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Effective evolution equations from quantum mechanics
Effective evolution equations from quantum mechanics
The goal of this thesis is to provide a mathematical rigorous derivation of the Schrödinger-Klein-Gordon equations, the Maxwell-Schrödinger equations and the defocusing cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation in two dimensions. We study the time evolution of the Nelson model (with ultraviolet cutoff) in a limit where the number N of charged particles gets large while the coupling of each particle to the radiation field is of order N^{−1/2}. At time zero it is assumed that almost all charges are in the same one-body state (a Bose-Einstein condensate) and that the radiation field is close to a coherent state. We show the persistence of condensation over time and prove that the time evolution is approximately described by the Schrödinger-Klein-Gordon system of equations in the large N limit. Subsequently, we consider the spinless Pauli-Fierz Hamiltonian which models the interaction between charged bosons and the quantized electromagnetic field. We discuss the limit previously described and prove that the time evolution is approximated by the Maxwell-Schrödinger equations. To our knowledge, this is the first rigorous result concerning a mean-field limit of the Pauli-Fierz Hamiltonian. We then turn to the evolution of Bose-Einstein condensates in two dimensions and consider N bosons which interact by a repulsive two-body potential. The interaction is given either by N^{−1+2β}V(N^{β}x) with β∈R^{+}_{0} or by e^{2N}V(e^{N}x), for some spherical symmetric, positive and compactly supported V∈L_{∞}(R^{2},R). We prove that the dynamics is approximated by the defocusing two-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the large N limit. In case of the exponential scaling, we show that a short-scale correlation structure affects the dynamics of the condensate. This is the first rigorous derivation that considers an exponential scaling of the interaction. All derivations rely on a method developed by Pickl in [Lett. Math. Phys. 97(2), 151–164 (2011)]. The first two results are obtained by an extension of the method to systems which interact with quantized radiation fields. The latter is derived by an appropriate adaption of the proof in three space dimensions [Rev. Math. Phys., 27, 1550005 (2015)]. The crucial insight to derive the Maxwell-Schrödinger equations is to restrict the class of many-body wave functions to a subspace of states whose energy per particle only fluctuates little around the energy functional of the Maxwell-Schrödinger system. To derive the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation it is essential to define a measure of condensation which properly incorporates the correlations that arise from the exponential scaling of the interaction. This thesis is based on the preprints [54, 47].
effective evolution equations, mean-field limit, Maxwell-Schrödinger equations, Schrödinger-Klein-Gordon equations, Gross-Pitaevskii equation
Leopold, Nikolai
2018
English
Universitätsbibliothek der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Leopold, Nikolai (2018): Effective evolution equations from quantum mechanics. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics
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Abstract

The goal of this thesis is to provide a mathematical rigorous derivation of the Schrödinger-Klein-Gordon equations, the Maxwell-Schrödinger equations and the defocusing cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation in two dimensions. We study the time evolution of the Nelson model (with ultraviolet cutoff) in a limit where the number N of charged particles gets large while the coupling of each particle to the radiation field is of order N^{−1/2}. At time zero it is assumed that almost all charges are in the same one-body state (a Bose-Einstein condensate) and that the radiation field is close to a coherent state. We show the persistence of condensation over time and prove that the time evolution is approximately described by the Schrödinger-Klein-Gordon system of equations in the large N limit. Subsequently, we consider the spinless Pauli-Fierz Hamiltonian which models the interaction between charged bosons and the quantized electromagnetic field. We discuss the limit previously described and prove that the time evolution is approximated by the Maxwell-Schrödinger equations. To our knowledge, this is the first rigorous result concerning a mean-field limit of the Pauli-Fierz Hamiltonian. We then turn to the evolution of Bose-Einstein condensates in two dimensions and consider N bosons which interact by a repulsive two-body potential. The interaction is given either by N^{−1+2β}V(N^{β}x) with β∈R^{+}_{0} or by e^{2N}V(e^{N}x), for some spherical symmetric, positive and compactly supported V∈L_{∞}(R^{2},R). We prove that the dynamics is approximated by the defocusing two-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the large N limit. In case of the exponential scaling, we show that a short-scale correlation structure affects the dynamics of the condensate. This is the first rigorous derivation that considers an exponential scaling of the interaction. All derivations rely on a method developed by Pickl in [Lett. Math. Phys. 97(2), 151–164 (2011)]. The first two results are obtained by an extension of the method to systems which interact with quantized radiation fields. The latter is derived by an appropriate adaption of the proof in three space dimensions [Rev. Math. Phys., 27, 1550005 (2015)]. The crucial insight to derive the Maxwell-Schrödinger equations is to restrict the class of many-body wave functions to a subspace of states whose energy per particle only fluctuates little around the energy functional of the Maxwell-Schrödinger system. To derive the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation it is essential to define a measure of condensation which properly incorporates the correlations that arise from the exponential scaling of the interaction. This thesis is based on the preprints [54, 47].