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Gebert, Martin (2015): Spectral and Eigenfunction correlations of finite-volume Schrödinger operators. Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Mathematik, Informatik und Statistik



The goal of this thesis is a mathematical understanding of a phenomenon called Anderson's Orthogonality in the physics literature. Given two non-interacting fermionic systems which differ by an exterior short-range scattering potential, the scalar product of the corresponding ground states is predicted to decay algebraically in the thermodynamic limit. This decay is referred to as Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe in the physics literature and goes back to P.W.Anderson [Phys. Rev. Lett. 18:1049--1051] and is used to explain anomalies in the X-ray absorption spectrum of metals. We call this scalar product $S_N^L$, where $N$ refers to the particle number and $L$ to the diameter of the considered fermionic system. This decay was proven in the works [Commun. Math. Phys. 329:979--998] and [arXiv:1407.2512] for rather general pairs of Schrödinger operators in arbitrary dimension $d\in\N$, i.e. $|S_N^L|^2\le L^{-\gamma}$ in the thermodynamic limit $N/L^d\to \rho>0$ approaching a positive particle density. In the general case, the biggest found decay exponent is given by $\gamma=\frac 1 {\pi^2} \norm{\arcsin|T/2|}_{\text{HS}}$, where T refers to the scattering T-matrix. In this thesis, we prove such upper bounds in more general situations than considered in both [Commun. Math. Phys. 329:979--998] and [arXiv:1407.2512]. Furthermore, we provide the first rigorous proof of the exact asymptotics Anderson predicted. We prove that in the $3$-dimensional toy model of a Dirac-$\delta$ perturbation that the exact decay exponent is given by $\zeta:= \delta^2/ \pi^2$. Here, $\delta$ refers to the s-wave scattering phase shift. In particular, this result shows that the previously found decay exponent $\gamma$ does not provide the correct asymptotics of $\S_N^L$ in general. Since the decay exponent is expressed in terms of scattering theory, these bounds depend on the existence of absolutely continuous spectrum of the underlying Schrödinger operators. We are able to deduce a different behavior in the contrary situation of Anderson localization. We prove the non-vanishing of the expectation value of the non-interacting many-body scalar product in the thermodynamic limit. Apart from the behavior of the scalar product of the non-interacting ground states, we also study the asymptotics of the difference of the ground-state energies. We show that this difference converges in the thermodynamic limit to the integral of the spectral-shift function up to the Fermi energy. Furthermore, we quantify the error for models on the half-axis and show that higher order error terms depend on the particular thermodynamic limit chosen.