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Self-consistent methods for interacting lattice bosons with U(1)-symmetry-breaking
Self-consistent methods for interacting lattice bosons with U(1)-symmetry-breaking
This thesis is dedicated to the derivation and benchmarking of self-consistent numerical methods that can be applied to interacting bosonic lattice models. The central goal is to derive methods with low numerical complexity but high accuracy, to be applied to complex systems which are out-of reach for established methods such as path integral quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) or the density matrix renormalization group. In the first part we derive the self-energy functional theory (SFT) for bosons. Building upon previous works on lattice systems without U(1)-symmetry-breaking, we systematically extend SFT to the possibility of a broken U(1)-symmetry and the presence of disorder. SFT incorporates bosonic dynamical mean-field theory as a certain limit, and represents a general non-perturbative framework, enabling the construction of diagrammatically sound approximations in the thermodynamical limit that are controlled in the number of optimization parameters. Using just three variational parameters, we are able to study the Bose-Hubbard model both in its clean version and in the presence of local disorder, showing excellent agreement with numerically exact QMC results. We systematically analyze the corresponding spectral functions, which cannot be fully captured by QMC. In particular, we find that in the presence of disorder the phase transition from the Bose glass to the superfluid phase at strong interactions is driven by the percolation of superfluid lakes which form around doubly occupied sites, leading to a small condensate fraction over a strongly-localized background. The second part is dedicated to the derivation of reciprocal cluster mean-field theory (RCMF) and its application to the strongly-interacting Harper-Hofstadter-Mott model (HHMm). In RCMF the full lattice in the thermodynamical limit is projected onto finite-size clusters, which are decoupled in reciprocal space through a mean-field decoupling approximation, crucially preserving the symmetries of the non-interacting dispersion. The resulting groundstate phase diagram of the HHMm exhibits band insulating, striped superfluid, and supersolid phases. Furthermore, we observe gapless uncondensed liquid phases at integer fillings, and a metastable competing fractional quantum Hall (fQH) phase. The fQH phase, predicted as the groundstate by other methods, is most likely underestimated by RCMF. We then show how a quasi-one-dimensional geometry stabilizes gapped topologically non-trivial groundstates in the HHMm. We observe quasi-one-dimensional analogues of fQH phases at fillings 1/2 and 3/2, and unconventional gapped non-degenerate groundstates at integer filling with quantized Hall responses. By systematically comparing results computed with RCMF and exact diagonalization (ED), we are able to give conclusive quantitative answers on the phase boundaries of the system, as the two methods approach the thermodynamical limit from opposite sides, since RCMF favours gapless and ED gapped phases.
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Hügel, Dario Frank
2018
Englisch
Universitätsbibliothek der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Hügel, Dario Frank (2018): Self-consistent methods for interacting lattice bosons with U(1)-symmetry-breaking. Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Physik
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Abstract

This thesis is dedicated to the derivation and benchmarking of self-consistent numerical methods that can be applied to interacting bosonic lattice models. The central goal is to derive methods with low numerical complexity but high accuracy, to be applied to complex systems which are out-of reach for established methods such as path integral quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) or the density matrix renormalization group. In the first part we derive the self-energy functional theory (SFT) for bosons. Building upon previous works on lattice systems without U(1)-symmetry-breaking, we systematically extend SFT to the possibility of a broken U(1)-symmetry and the presence of disorder. SFT incorporates bosonic dynamical mean-field theory as a certain limit, and represents a general non-perturbative framework, enabling the construction of diagrammatically sound approximations in the thermodynamical limit that are controlled in the number of optimization parameters. Using just three variational parameters, we are able to study the Bose-Hubbard model both in its clean version and in the presence of local disorder, showing excellent agreement with numerically exact QMC results. We systematically analyze the corresponding spectral functions, which cannot be fully captured by QMC. In particular, we find that in the presence of disorder the phase transition from the Bose glass to the superfluid phase at strong interactions is driven by the percolation of superfluid lakes which form around doubly occupied sites, leading to a small condensate fraction over a strongly-localized background. The second part is dedicated to the derivation of reciprocal cluster mean-field theory (RCMF) and its application to the strongly-interacting Harper-Hofstadter-Mott model (HHMm). In RCMF the full lattice in the thermodynamical limit is projected onto finite-size clusters, which are decoupled in reciprocal space through a mean-field decoupling approximation, crucially preserving the symmetries of the non-interacting dispersion. The resulting groundstate phase diagram of the HHMm exhibits band insulating, striped superfluid, and supersolid phases. Furthermore, we observe gapless uncondensed liquid phases at integer fillings, and a metastable competing fractional quantum Hall (fQH) phase. The fQH phase, predicted as the groundstate by other methods, is most likely underestimated by RCMF. We then show how a quasi-one-dimensional geometry stabilizes gapped topologically non-trivial groundstates in the HHMm. We observe quasi-one-dimensional analogues of fQH phases at fillings 1/2 and 3/2, and unconventional gapped non-degenerate groundstates at integer filling with quantized Hall responses. By systematically comparing results computed with RCMF and exact diagonalization (ED), we are able to give conclusive quantitative answers on the phase boundaries of the system, as the two methods approach the thermodynamical limit from opposite sides, since RCMF favours gapless and ED gapped phases.