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Loss of the SNARE protein Sec22p selectively represses caesium accumulation in yeast and plants
Loss of the SNARE protein Sec22p selectively represses caesium accumulation in yeast and plants
The rare alkali ion caesium (Cs+) is assimilated by eukaryotes, even though it is not an essential nutrient. It poses an environmental concern through the anthropogenic release of its radioisotopes, 134Cs and 137Cs. Bioavailability and long half-lives favour its uptake and accumulation in plants, via which radiocaesium can be introduced to the food chain. Cs+ ions are taken up via potassium-(K+)-related pathways due to the biophysical similarity of these cations. This makes it difficult to solely manipulate Cs+ accumulation in plants without disturbing the homeostasis of essential ions at the same time. This work shows that the soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) Sec22p, previously described as a member of the protein sorting machinery, specifically affects Cs+ accumulation in yeast by regulating the selectivity of vacuolar deposition. A similar phenotype became apparent for a homologous plant protein, SEC22. The loss of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sec22p reduces Cs+ uptake by more than half, while at the same time leaving essential cations undisturbed. Mathematical modelling of wild-type and mutant Cs+ uptake kinetics proposes that sec22Δ is defective in vacuolar compartmentalisation of Cs+, which is proven by biochemical fractionation. Morphological alterations were not produced by the loss of Sec22p, only a Cs+-dependent vacuolar fragmentation can be observed. These results indicate a so far undescribed function of Sec22p in assuring a non-selective ion deposition to the vacuole, which is necessary in ion detoxification, while its loss induces discrimination against vacuolar Cs+ deposition. A developmentally controlled loss-of-function mutant of the orthologous gene SEC22 (At1g11890) in A. thaliana displays a similar phenotype, having specifically reduced Cs+ enrichment without detrimental growth defects, thereby translating the yeast findings to a multicellular context. Furthermore, a functional complementation of the yeast mutant Cs+ phenotype by the plant gene transcript was possible. Selective reduction of Cs+ accumulation in plants by loss of a single gene product represents a new route to limit radiocaesium input to the food chain without disturbing basic plant nutrition and growth.
SNARE,caesium,Sec22,arabidopsis,saccharomyces
Dräxl, Stephan Johann
2012
Englisch
Universitätsbibliothek der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Dräxl, Stephan Johann (2012): Loss of the SNARE protein Sec22p selectively represses caesium accumulation in yeast and plants. Dissertation, LMU München: Fakultät für Chemie und Pharmazie
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Abstract

The rare alkali ion caesium (Cs+) is assimilated by eukaryotes, even though it is not an essential nutrient. It poses an environmental concern through the anthropogenic release of its radioisotopes, 134Cs and 137Cs. Bioavailability and long half-lives favour its uptake and accumulation in plants, via which radiocaesium can be introduced to the food chain. Cs+ ions are taken up via potassium-(K+)-related pathways due to the biophysical similarity of these cations. This makes it difficult to solely manipulate Cs+ accumulation in plants without disturbing the homeostasis of essential ions at the same time. This work shows that the soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment receptor (SNARE) Sec22p, previously described as a member of the protein sorting machinery, specifically affects Cs+ accumulation in yeast by regulating the selectivity of vacuolar deposition. A similar phenotype became apparent for a homologous plant protein, SEC22. The loss of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sec22p reduces Cs+ uptake by more than half, while at the same time leaving essential cations undisturbed. Mathematical modelling of wild-type and mutant Cs+ uptake kinetics proposes that sec22Δ is defective in vacuolar compartmentalisation of Cs+, which is proven by biochemical fractionation. Morphological alterations were not produced by the loss of Sec22p, only a Cs+-dependent vacuolar fragmentation can be observed. These results indicate a so far undescribed function of Sec22p in assuring a non-selective ion deposition to the vacuole, which is necessary in ion detoxification, while its loss induces discrimination against vacuolar Cs+ deposition. A developmentally controlled loss-of-function mutant of the orthologous gene SEC22 (At1g11890) in A. thaliana displays a similar phenotype, having specifically reduced Cs+ enrichment without detrimental growth defects, thereby translating the yeast findings to a multicellular context. Furthermore, a functional complementation of the yeast mutant Cs+ phenotype by the plant gene transcript was possible. Selective reduction of Cs+ accumulation in plants by loss of a single gene product represents a new route to limit radiocaesium input to the food chain without disturbing basic plant nutrition and growth.