Rossmanith, Gregor (2011): Concepts of nonlinear data analysis applied to the search of nonGaussianities in the CMB. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Physics 

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Abstract
One of the key challenges in Cosmology today is to probe both statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the primordial density perturbations, which are imprinted in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. While singlefield slowroll inflation predicts the CMB to fulfil these two characteristics, more complex models may give rise to anisotropy and/or nonGaussianity. A detection or nondetection allows therefore to discriminate between different models of inflation and significantly improves the understanding of basic conditions of the very early Universe. In this work, a detailed CMB nonGaussianity and isotropy analysis of the five and sevenyear observations of the WMAP satellite is presented. On the one hand, these investigations are performed by comparing the data set with simulations, which is the usual approach for this kind of analyses. On the other hand, a new modelindependent approach is developed and applied in this work. Starting from the random phase hypothesis, so called surrogate maps are created by shuffling the Fourier phases of the original maps for a chosen scale interval. Any disagreement between the data and these surrogates points towards phase correlations in the original map, and therefore – if systematics and foregrounds can be ruled out – towards a violation of singlefield slow roll inflation. The construction of surrogate maps only works for an orthonormal set of Fourier functions on the sphere, which is provided by the spherical harmonics exclusively on a complete sky. For this reason, the surrogate approach is for the first time combined with a transformation of the full sky spherical harmonics to a cut sky version. Both the single surrogate approach as well as the combination with the cut sky transformation are tested thoroughly to assess and then rule out the effects of systematics. Thus, this work not only represents a detailed CMB analysis, but also provides a completely new method to test for scale dependent higher order correlations in complete or partial spherical data sets, which can be applied in different fields of research. In detail, the applications of the above methods involve the following analyses: First, a detailed study of several frequency bands of the WMAP fiveyear data release is accomplished by means of a scaling index analysis, whereby the data are compared to simulations. Special attention is paid to anomalous local features, and ways to overcome the problem of boundary effects when excluding foregroundinfluenced parts of the sky. After this, the surrogate approach is for the first time applied to real CMB data sets. In doing so, several foregroundreduced full sky maps from both the five and sevenyear WMAP observations are used. The analysis includes different scale intervals and a huge amount of checks on possible systematics. Then, another step forward is taken by applying the surrogate approach for the first time to incomplete data sets, again from the WMAP five and sevenyear releases. The Galactic Plane, which is responsible for the largest amount of foreground contribution, is removed by means of several cuts of different sizes. In addition, different techniques for the basis transformation are used. In all of these investigations, remarkable nonGaussianities and deviations from statistical isotropy are identified. In fact, the surrogate approach shows by far the most significant detection of nonGaussianity to date. The bandwise analysis shows consistent results for all frequency bands. Despite a thorough search, no candidate for foreground or systematic influences could be found. Therefore, the findings of these analyses have so far to be taken as cosmological, and point on the one hand towards a strong violation of singlefield slowroll inflation, and question on the other hand the concept of statistical isotropy in general. Future analyses of the more precise measurements of the forthcoming PLANCK satellite will yield more information about the origin of the detected anomalies.
Item Type:  Thesis (Dissertation, LMU Munich) 

Subjects:  600 Natural sciences and mathematics 600 Natural sciences and mathematics > 530 Physics 
Faculties:  Faculty of Physics 
Language:  English 
Date Accepted:  9. December 2011 
1. Referee:  Morfill, Gregor 
Persistent Identifier (URN):  urn:nbn:de:bvb:19138198 
MD5 Checksum of the PDFfile:  8747ad94821b5a44fe5d3a6304647642 
Signature of the printed copy:  0001/UMC 19984 
ID Code:  13819 
Deposited On:  10. Jan 2012 10:33 
Last Modified:  16. Oct 2012 08:56 