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Feierler, Jens (2012): Die Funktion der Helix 8 für die Regulation des Bradykinin B2 Rezeptors. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Medicine
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Abstract

Upon activation the human bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) acts as guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the G proteins Gq/11 and Gi. Thereafter, it gets phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and recruits beta-arrestins, which block further G protein activation and promote B2R internalization via clathrin-coated pits. As for most G protein-coupled receptors of family A, an intracellular helix 8 after transmembrane domain 7 is also predicted for the B2R. We show here that disruption of helix 8 in the B2R by either C-terminal truncation or just by mutation of a central amino acid (Lys-315) to a helix-breaking proline resulted in strong reduction of surface expression. Interestingly, this malfunction could be overcome by the addition of the membrane-permeable B2R antagonist JSM10292, suggesting that helix 8 has a general role for conformational stabilization that can be accounted for by an appropriate antagonist. Intriguingly, an intact helix 8, but not the C terminus with its phosphorylation sites, was indispensable for receptor sequestration and for interaction of the B2R with GRK2/3 and beta-arrestin2 as shown by co-immunoprecipitation. Recruitment of beta-arrestin1, however, required the presence of the C terminus. Taken together, our results demonstrate that helix 8 of the B2R plays a crucial role not only in efficient trafficking to the plasma membrane or the activation of G proteins but also for the interaction of the B2R with GRK2/3 and beta-arrestins. Additional data obtained with chimera of B2R with other G protein-coupled receptors of family A suggest that helix 8 might have similar functions in other GPCRs as well.