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Trak-Fellermeier, María Angélica (2011): Food, Fatty Acids and Antioxidants Intake and their Associations with Atopic disease in Adults. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Medicine
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Abstract

It was hypothesized that high fat consumption, specifically from polyunsaturated fatty acids, may be positively related to atopic disease prevalence. On the other hand, antioxidants constituents of the diet may exert a protective effect against disorders related to the immune system. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between dietary intake of selected foods, fatty acids, and dietary antioxidants with atopic disease prevalence in adults. Data from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey in Erfurt, combined with a three-day weighed records from the MONICA dietary survey, was used. Complete data was available from 469 men and 333 women aged between 20 and 64 years. Multiple logistic regression was applied comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of dietary exposures and linear trends were tested stratified by gender. In men, margarine intake and a high ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids were positively associated with hay fever (p for trend 0.03 and 0.04 respectively). In women, a high intake of total fat, palmitoleic and oleic acids were positively associated with sensitisation (aOR 2.42, p for trend 0.11, 3.04, p for trend 0.02, 2.47, p for trend 0.03 respectively). A high total fat (aOR 4.51, p for trend 0.05), high monounsaturated fatty acids (aOR 3.04, p for trend 0.01), and high oleic acid consumption (aOR 4.99, p for trend 0.01) were positively associated with hay fever. No clear relationships between antioxidant nutrients consumption and allergic disease were observed. Whilst an excessive intake of fat or imbalance in fat intake, particularly of monounsaturated fatty acids, increased the risk for hay fever and allergic sensitisation in women. Mainly, no significant associations were found for men. Dietary factors were mostly not related with prevalence rates of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and atopic eczema neither in men nor in women.