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Fundel, Katrin (2007): Text Mining and Gene Expression Analysis Towards Combined Interpretation of High Throughput Data. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics
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Abstract

Microarrays can capture gene expression activity for thousands of genes simultaneously and thus make it possible to analyze cell physiology and disease processes on molecular level. The interpretation of microarray gene expression experiments profits from knowledge on the analyzed genes and proteins and the biochemical networks in which they play a role. The trend is towards the development of data analysis methods that integrate diverse data types. Currently, the most comprehensive biomedical knowledge source is a large repository of free text articles. Text mining makes it possible to automatically extract and use information from texts. This thesis addresses two key aspects, biomedical text mining and gene expression data analysis, with the focus on providing high-quality methods and data that contribute to the development of integrated analysis approaches. The work is structured in three parts. Each part begins by providing the relevant background, and each chapter describes the developed methods as well as applications and results. Part I deals with biomedical text mining: Chapter 2 summarizes the relevant background of text mining; it describes text mining fundamentals, important text mining tasks, applications and particularities of text mining in the biomedical domain, and evaluation issues. In Chapter 3, a method for generating high-quality gene and protein name dictionaries is described. The analysis of the generated dictionaries revealed important properties of individual nomenclatures and the used databases (Fundel and Zimmer, 2006). The dictionaries are publicly available via a Wiki, a web service, and several client applications (Szugat et al., 2005). In Chapter 4, methods for the dictionary-based recognition of gene and protein names in texts and their mapping onto unique database identifiers are described. These methods make it possible to extract information from texts and to integrate text-derived information with data from other sources. Three named entity identification systems have been set up, two of them building upon the previously existing tool ProMiner (Hanisch et al., 2003). All of them have shown very good performance in the BioCreAtIvE challenges (Fundel et al., 2005a; Hanisch et al., 2005; Fundel and Zimmer, 2007). In Chapter 5, a new method for relation extraction (Fundel et al., 2007) is presented. It was applied on the largest collection of biomedical literature abstracts, and thus a comprehensive network of human gene and protein relations has been generated. A classification approach (Küffner et al., 2006) can be used to specify relation types further; e. g., as activating, direct physical, or gene regulatory relation. Part II deals with gene expression data analysis: Gene expression data needs to be processed so that differentially expressed genes can be identified. Gene expression data processing consists of several sequential steps. Two important steps are normalization, which aims at removing systematic variances between measurements, and quantification of differential expression by p-value and fold change determination. Numerous methods exist for these tasks. Chapter 6 describes the relevant background of gene expression data analysis; it presents the biological and technical principles of microarrays and gives an overview of the most relevant data processing steps. Finally, it provides a short introduction to osteoarthritis, which is in the focus of the analyzed gene expression data sets. In Chapter 7, quality criteria for the selection of normalization methods are described, and a method for the identification of differentially expressed genes is proposed, which is appropriate for data with large intensity variances between spots representing the same gene (Fundel et al., 2005b). Furthermore, a system is described that selects an appropriate combination of feature selection method and classifier, and thus identifies genes which lead to good classification results and show consistent behavior in different sample subgroups (Davis et al., 2006). The analysis of several gene expression data sets dealing with osteoarthritis is described in Chapter 8. This chapter contains the biomedical analysis of relevant disease processes and distinct disease stages (Aigner et al., 2006a), and a comparison of various microarray platforms and osteoarthritis models. Part III deals with integrated approaches and thus provides the connection between parts I and II: Chapter 9 gives an overview of different types of integrated data analysis approaches, with a focus on approaches that integrate gene expression data with manually compiled data, large-scale networks, or text mining. In Chapter 10, a method for the identification of genes which are consistently regulated and have a coherent literature background (Küffner et al., 2005) is described. This method indicates how gene and protein name identification and gene expression data can be integrated to return clusters which contain genes that are relevant for the respective experiment together with literature information that supports interpretation. Finally, in Chapter 11 ideas on how the described methods can contribute to current research and possible future directions are presented.