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Bohnet, Nadine (2007): Augenuntersuchung beim Vogel: Eine interaktive CD-ROM zum Erlernen des ophthalmologischen Untersuchungsganges. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
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Abstract

Ophthalmological examining of the eye is in birds is - to a much greater extent than in mammals - an integral part of a general examination, since ocular disorder in birds frequently demonstrate ocular manifestions of systemic diseases. During the last 15 years various componds of a systematic ophthalmological examination routine (including the appropriate reference ranges for standard examination techniques like tonometry, Schirmer’s test and electroretinography, among others) have been established. This work presently summarizes all the standard techniques and for the first time presents them concisely and as parts of a defined and harmonized examination procedure. With the help of a multimedia environment, this work intends to provide students, veterinary surgeons as well as human and mammal ophthalmologists with a practical overview of the currently valid standard of the ophthalmological examination of birds and summarize the basic knowledge necessary to assess the disease situation. This goal was achieved by using the multimedia authoring program Director® MX by Macromedia®, which makes possible the preparation of complex and interactive multimedia applications as well as so-called kiosks and includes the object-oriented scripting languages Lingo and Java Script. Director® MX provides the tools, with which the surface and masks of this CD-ROM were created according to specifically designed concepts and set learning objectives. The inclusion of the scripting languages Lingo and Java Script made it also possible to create links and include automatic film sequences that give a vivid picture of the contents and enhance intuitive understanding. The various links provide the user with the opportunity either to work through the CD systematically or individually with the help of the index. So both beginners and advanced students or scholars and professionals may use this CD and access its contents according to their specific needs. The CD „Examining avian eye diseases“ offers the user a multimedia learning environment with the help of which the correct and systematic ophthalmological examination procedure of birds may be studied. Additional material accompanying the CD includes both fixed images and video sequences created specifically for this project as well as a comprehensive bibliography. The major part of the learning program deals with the ophthalmological examination of pet birds, zoo animals, wildfowl and all kinds of farming poultry. For this purpose, a standardized examination procedure with a step-by-step method for the front segment of the eye was established. For the first time the CD-ROM presents the complete examination procedure fully adapted to bird-specific requirements and visually presentsed by means of interactive media and with the inclusion of all the general and bird-specific examination techniques (Schirmer’s test, tonometry, gonioscopy, electroretinography and ophthalmoscopy). Besides, a documentation sheet was modified for easier follow-up documentation. The procedure suggested here is based on the modified examination method for birds by KORBEL (1994). By also including video sequences of the back section of the eye for the first time, the entire representation becomes more vivid and realistic. A comparison of clinically relevant ophthalmological aspects of mammals with birds and reptiles forms the basis for an expansion of postgraduate education programs that hitherto were focused solely on mammals. In addition, the user has access to comprehensive knowledge on the anatomy and general properties of birds and is informed of general examination methods, fixation or injection techniques, and anesthesia and analgesia, without which a correct ornitho-ophthalmological examination were impossible. Multimedia learning programs are an attractive alternative for further education. With the help of interactive media, information may be spread conveniently and flexibly in the course of student or postgraduate education, within the national frameworks of veterinary associations or for international ophthalmological residency programs like the European College of Veterinary Ophthalmology. Since e-learning, the use of interactive media for all kinds of study and education purposes, will be indispensable in the future, this CD delivers an important contribution to the ophthalmology of birds.