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Weigel, Felix (2006): Structural Summaries as a Core Technology for Efficient XML Retrieval. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics
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Abstract

The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is extremely popular as a generic markup language for text documents with an explicit hierarchical structure. The different types of XML data found in today’s document repositories, digital libraries, intranets and on the web range from flat text with little meaningful structure to be queried, over truly semistructured data with a rich and often irregular structure, to rather rigidly structured documents with little text that would also fit a relational database system (RDBS). Not surprisingly, various ways of storing and retrieving XML data have been investigated, including native XML systems, relational engines based on RDBSs, and hybrid combinations thereof. Over the years a number of native XML indexing techniques have emerged, the most important ones being structure indices and labelling schemes. Structure indices represent the document schema (i.e., the hierarchy of nested tags that occur in the documents) in a compact central data structure so that structural query constraints (e.g., path or tree patterns) can be efficiently matched without accessing the documents. Labelling schemes specify ways to assign unique identifiers, or labels, to the document nodes so that specific relations (e.g., parent/child) between individual nodes can be inferred from their labels alone in a decentralized manner, again without accessing the documents themselves. Since both structure indices and labelling schemes provide compact approximate views on the document structure, we collectively refer to them as structural summaries. This work presents new structural summaries that enable highly efficient and scalable XML retrieval in native, relational and hybrid systems. The key contribution of our approach is threefold. (1) We introduce BIRD, a very efficient and expressive labelling scheme for XML, and the CADG, a combined text and structure index, and combine them as two complementary building blocks of the same XML retrieval system. (2) We propose a purely relational variant of BIRD and the CADG, called RCADG, that is extremely fast and scales up to large document collections. (3) We present the RCADG Cache, a hybrid system that enhances the RCADG with incremental query evaluation based on cached results of earlier queries. The RCADG Cache exploits schema information in the RCADG to detect cached query results that can supply some or all matches to a new query with little or no computational and I/O effort. A main-memory cache index ensures that reusable query results are quickly retrieved even in a huge cache. Our work shows that structural summaries significantly improve the efficiency and scalability of XML retrieval systems in several ways. Former relational approaches have largely ignored structural summaries. The RCADG shows that these native indexing techniques are equally effective for XML retrieval in RDBSs. BIRD, unlike some other labelling schemes, achieves high retrieval performance with a fairly modest storage overhead. To the best of our knowledge, the RCADG Cache is the only approach to take advantage of structural summaries for effectively detecting query containment or overlap. Moreover, no other XML cache we know of exploits intermediate results that are produced as a by-product during the evaluation from scratch. These are valuable cache contents that increase the effectiveness of the cache at no extra computational cost. Extensive experiments quantify the practical benefit of all of the proposed techniques, which amounts to a performance gain of several orders of magnitude compared to various other approaches.