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Holzner, Andreas Michael (2012): DMRG studies of Chebyshev-expanded spectral functions and quantum impurity models. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Physics
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Abstract

This thesis is concerned with two main topics: first, the advancement of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and, second, its applications. In the first project of this thesis we exploit the common mathematical structure of the numerical renormalization group and the DMRG, namely, matrix product states (MPS), to implement an efficient numerical treatment of a two-lead, multi-level Anderson impurity model. By adopting a star-like geometry, where each species (spin and lead) of conduction electrons is described by its own so-called Wilson chain, instead of a single Wilson chain we achieve a very significant reduction in the numerical resources required to obtain reliable results. Moreover, we show that it is possible to find an "optimal" chain basis, in which chain degrees of freedom of different Wilson chains become effectively decoupled from each other further out on the Wilson chains. This basis turns out to also diagonalize the model's chain-to-chain scattering matrix. In the second project we show that Chebychev expansions offer numerically efficient representations for calculating spectral functions of one-dimensional lattice models using MPS methods. The main features of this Chebychev matrix product state (CheMPS) approach are: (i) it achieves uniform resolution over the spectral function's entire spectral width; (ii) it offers a well-controlled broadening scheme; (iii) it is based on using MPS tools to recursively calculate a succession of Chebychev vectors, (iv) whose entanglement entropies were found to remain bounded with increasing recursion order for all cases analyzed here. We present CheMPS results for the structure factor of spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains and perform a detailed finite-size analysis. Making comparisons to benchmark methods, we find that CheMPS yields results comparable in quality to those of correction vector DMRG, at dramatically reduced numerical cost and agrees well with Bethe Ansatz results for an infinite system, within the limitations expected for numerics on finite systems. Following these technologically focused projects we study the so-called Kondo cloud by means of the DMRG in the third project. The Kondo cloud describes the effect of spatially extended spin-spin correlations of a magnetic moment and the conduction electrons which screen the magnetic moment through the Kondo effect at low temperatures. We focus on the question whether the Kondo screening length, typically assumed to be proportional to the inverse Kondo temperature, can be extracted from the spin-spin correlations. We investigate how perturbations which destroy the Kondo effect, like an applied gate potential or a magnetic field, affect the formation of the screening cloud. In a forth project we address the impact of Quantum (anti-)Zeno physics resulting from repeated single-site resolved observations on the many-body dynamics. We use time-dependent DMRG to obtain the time evolution of the full many-body wave function that is then periodically projected in order to simulate realizations of stroboscopic measurements. For the example of a 1-D lattice of spin-polarized fermions with nearest-neighbor interactions, we find regimes for which many-particle configurations are stabilized and destabilized depending on the interaction strength and the time between observations.