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Kuchler, Kathrin (2011): Der Einfluss des Melkens auf Durchblutung und Morphologie der Rinderzitze untersucht mittels Color Angiographie und B-Mode Sonographie. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
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Abstract

“Investigation of the effects of milking on the teat tissue and the teat blood flow using ultrasonographic scanning and color angiography” The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of milking on the teat blood flow and the teat tissue of dairy cows using color angiography and ultrasonographic scanning. 10 udder healthy lactating Holstein-Friesian cows from the second lactation were selected for the study. The selected cows had a milk cell concentration below 100 000 cells/ml in the course of every probation milking during the cow milk recording enquiry of the current lactation. In addition California-Mastitis-Test and microbiological analysis had been negative at the day of measurement. The measurements were carried out using a MyLab30Vet XVISION® ultrasound scanner with a linear array probe. The analysis was supported by MyLab™Desk® as well as PixelFlux® software. During ultrasound scanning the right front teat was immersed in warmed contact jelly in an angled bowl. Measurements in cross section at the changeover of udder quarter and the teat as well as in longitudinal cut were made. Circumference and area of the teat and of the teat-cistern at the cross section and teat-canal length, teat-wall thickness, teat-end width and teat cistern width at the longitudinal cut were evaluated. The teat-tissue area at the cross section was calculated. Measurements were started three hours before afternoon milking and were repeated every 15 minutes until milking. Directly after the removal of the milking cluster an additional measurement was performed. Subsequently, measurements took place every 10 minutes for the next 40 minutes. Thereafter, measurements were done every 15 minutes until 175 minutes after milking. Results: • Color Angiography is suited for measuring the blood flow of the teats of dairy cows. • Directly after the removal of the milking cluster, the blood flow density of seven (MP 1) respectively eight (MP 4) out of the ten selected cows was reduced. • All cows showed a high significant increase of blood flow density after the first measurement following milking. • Teat channel length upon milking is significantly longer than immediately before milking and is reduced again afterwards. It does not reach its original length during the measuring period. • The teat end width does not change significantly during the whole measurement period. • Up to milking the cistern width increases, and after milking it is significantly reduced. From the first measurement after milking it starts increasing again. • The teat wall is significantly thicker after milking than before. • Teat area and teat width are significantly smaller directly after milking than before. Following the first measurement after milking, they are reduced. • Cistern area and cistern width are significantly smaller after milking than immediately before. During a measuring interval they decrease so that there is a significant difference between the first measurement after milking and the two following measurements. Subsequently, they increase again. • The size of the teat tissue area changes only slightly during the period of measurements.