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Davies, Alison M.R. (2010): The systematic revision of Chaetanthera Ruiz & Pav., and the reinstatement of the genus Oriastrum Poepp. & Endl. (Asteraceae; Mutisieae). Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Biology
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Abstract

Chaetanthera Ruiz & Pav. (30 species, 1 variety, 2 hybrid forms) and Oriastrum Poepp. & Endl. (18 species, 1 variety) are among the most species-rich Astereaceae genera of the Chilean Flora. Formerly combined under one name, the two genera have been extensively revised. Chaetanthera is found mainly in Chile, with one Peruvian species and several scattered populations of other species in Andean Argentina. Oriastrum inhabits the higher elevations of the Andes, spread over Chile, Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. Systematic studies focussing on morphological and anatomical variation of characters taken from habit, involucral bracts, and achenes, combined with palynological and genetic (nr DNA) information are used to circumscribe Chaetanthera with two subgenera – Chaetanthera subgenus Chaetanthera and Chaetanthera subgenus Tylloma (D.Don) Less., and reinstate Oriastrum with two subgenera – Oriastrum subgenus Oriastrum and Oriastrum subgenus Egania (J.Rémy) A.M.R. Davies. Character variation is discussed in the context of form, function and habitat, with emphasis on the evolutionary adaptiveness of character traits seen in the two allied genera. Chaetanthera appears to show primary adaptation to cold and several secondary adaptations to arid conditions, typical of modern Chilean landscapes. Oriastrum taxa appear well-adapted to the cold, high elevations of the Andes, and show secondary developments trending towards an insular syndrome. The collated bio-geographical information of the taxa is considered in terms of endemism, hotspots and species radiations. Chaetanthera taxa have 2 loci of diversity hotspots in Chile – in Coquimbo and in Santiago. Trichome diversity and capitula morphology trends are used as evidence of species radiations in Chaetanthera. Oriastrum taxa are notable for parallel radiations of morphologically similar species within particular Andean zones: i.e., Altoandino or Altiplano. Case studies concerning three groups of Chaetanthera taxa are presented. The first case highlights the effect of the El Niño on the polymorphic C. glabrata along the Chilean Pacific coast. The second case deals with current active hybridisation between C. linearis and C. albiflora in the semi-arid Andean foothills. In the last example, incipient speciation and polymorphism between C. chilensis and C. elegans in southern Central Chile is discussed. Various statistical techniques for the analysis of hybridisation events are applied. All taxa are keyed out and described. Novel taxa are described and imaged or illustrated. Nomenclatural issues and lectotypification of 15 Chaetanthera names and 6 Oriastrum names are effected. Chaetanthera is described here with one novel species (C. pubescens A.M.R. Davies), one novel variety (C. glandulosa var. microphylla A.M.R. Davies), a new name (C. frayjorgensis A.M.R. Davies), and three new combinations: C. albiflora (Phil.) A.M.R. Davies, C. depauperata (Hook. & Arn.) A.M.R. Davies, C. taltalensis (Cabrera) A.M.R. Davies. Oriastrum is described here with four new species and one new variety: O. werdermannii A.M.R. Davies, O. famatinae A.M.R. Davies, O. tarapacensis A.M.R. Davies, O. tontalensis A.M.R. Davies and O. stuebelii var. cryptum A.M.R. Davies respectively. Five novel combinations are presented: O. abbreviatum (Cabrera) A.M.R. Davies, O. achenohirsutum (Tombesi) A.M.R. Davies, O. apiculatum (J.Rémy) A.M.R. Davies, O. revolutum (Phil.) A.M.R. Davies and O. stuebelii (Hieron.) A.M.R. Davies var. stuebelii.